This is the preliminary drawing for Female Adornment at Çatalhöyük, the companion piece to Male Adornment at Çatalhöyük, which I’ve been working on with Milena Vasic, a Phd student currently working on this subject. You can read about it and our decision process in this post. As discussed in the Male Adornment post, there is limited evidence for clothing at Çatalhöyük. This is especially true for females. There are only one or two representations of females in the Çatalhöyük wall paintings (excavated by Mellaart) and they are silhouettes with no clothing depicted. The only data for female adornment come from figurines and jewelry items such as beads.
One female figurine from the 1960’s Mellaart excavations has indications of clothing (the figurine in the upper left of the drawing). The figurine has some sort of spotted top and skirt with possibly fringed edges incised into the clay. In this illustration I’ve dressed the woman’s full-body-view in my interpretation of this outfit. Researchers at Çatalhöyük have interpreted depictions of spotted clothing as leopard skin or imitation leopard skin. Only one leopard bone has ever been identified on site making it unlikely that they had ready access to the real deal (you can read more about leopards on site in The Leopard’s Tale by Ian Hodder). I’ve drawn the top as goat’s skin with hair intact and painted with spots. The bottom has been cut to create a fringe. The skirt is also made of leather and fringed, but scraped clean of hair.
Most of the other female figurines recovered both from the Mellaart and the current Hodder excavations lack any sort of adornment. Exceptions are some figurines depicting either a hairstyle or head dress (such as the one in the lower right of the drawing, excavated by Mellaart). The woman in both the full-body-view and the upper-body-view wears one of many possible interpretations of this hairstyle or head dress. Here I’ve drawn it as a wide, flat, up-swept bun, probably one of the more conservative ways to interpret the figurines. In other illustrations I’ve shown it as in a similar fashion, but with the sides of the head shaved (see image below).
A more structured hairstyle with some sort of internal support that is either left in or removed after construction has also been suggested (The Hopi squash blossom whorl for unmarried women is an ethnographic example of this. You can see photos of this hairstyle being constructed at this link). You can also see a variety of other interpretations in John Swogger’s illustrations.
The figurine in the upper right of the drawing (excavated by Mellaart), which was painted with red pigment in a “x” pattern, hints at the possibility of body painting. Stamp seals found on site might be one way patterns were applied to the body, though they have not been found with obvious pigment on them or in any sort of primary context. I’ve added the red “x”s to the woman’s full-figure-view.
I’ve also included evidence from beads and textiles in this illustration. Both views of the woman wear the bracelet found in the plaster skull burial. This bracelet includes the only leopard bone found on site. The woman in full-body-view is wearing a necklace found in Burial 15924. The dress in the upper-body-view is based on 5 incised torques found with a female burial in Building 50. The torques, carved from boar tusks, were distributed down the front of the skeleton’s chest, indicating they were perhaps sewn to some perishable material. I’ve drawn them stitched to a leather dress. I’ve also added a woven belt. Textiles are extremely rare at Çatalhöyük because of their organic nature and no secondary evidence for their production has been found. But small pieces have been recovered and therefore were probably part of adornment in some way. I’ve chosen to include a woven belt because narrow strips of cloth are the easiest to weave and the technology to do so is some of the simplest.
I’m currently painting the final version of Male Adornment at Çatalhöyük and Female Adornment at Çatalhöyük is up next. I’ll post both here when I’m finished.